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At ASH 2019 in Orlando, FL, Dr. Nitin Jain explained MRD testing for “minimal” or “measurable” residual disease, which may soon become recognized as the most reliable indicator of whether or when patients might have attained such a low level of disease that treatment could be discontinued (“limited” or “fixed” duration). Dr. Jain’s explanation cites MRD testing by FLOW Cytometry (testing down to 1 CLL cell in a sample of 10,000 cells). However, since then, clonoSEQ, a product of Adaptive Biotechnologies (testing for 1 CLL cell in one million cells) has received FDA approval for use in CLL.